Carlos Jose Paulo Casaretto Forni<email@example.com> Прикачен файл24 октомври 2015 г., 17:20
До: Dimitrinka Staikova <firstname.lastname@example.org>
GIACOMO DEPOSIT (Silica-Titanium)
Contact the owner:
Carlos Casaretto Forni
Tel: 54 – 261 – 425 2699
In the Southern Peruvian Andes, a unique mineral occurrence of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) exists near the city of Tacna. This occurrence is known as the Giacomo Project.Giacomo is currently estimated to contain a resource of at least 300 million metric tonnes of high-grade SiO2 and TiO2 mineralization of extremely small particle size.
Giacomo is really more aptly described as an “Occurrence” rather than a Deposit. The white outcroppings seen below are actually the minerals of interest. The following pictures reveal the purity of the underlying material.
Three Mining Concessions are in Giacomo Deposit Project with 1900 hectares
The deposit has never been exploited and has been preserved in the state originally found, .except for analysis-oriented excavations.
Giacomo contains an utterly unique material.
Scientists say, “Never before seen…” “…quite possibly, the purest find ever”.Giacomo is a virgin site, sui generis in the mining world due to 4 unusual features that help reduce the costs of extraction and consequently the amount of investment to start up in a significant way:1. The minerals, in their natural state, are found on the surface; thus reducing extraction cost as the collection from the soil does not require excavations or complex tunnels. 2. The concentration of useful mineral is on average of 95%, which translates into lower costs for primary purification.3. The SiO2 and TiO2 are found as fine particles (powder instead of quartz), making micronization and milling processes, which are particularly costly, unnecessary.4. The SiO2 and TiO2 are held together only by cohesion (mixed but not fused, each particle is independent), allowing to avoid refining costs.The larger crystals are all TiO2, and the fine material around the crystal is mostly SiO2. The TiO2 crystals are up to 10 micrometres in size, but the SiO2 is a very fine powder.
Giacomo Deposit Outcroppings details taken from different parts of Giacomo 10‐metre long tunnel 1.1 History The mine was discovered 10 years ago and is owned by a single individual. The project started at the time of its discovery, however because of the owner’s ill health it was paused until now. The project is looking for commercial development agreements, to assign the rights for the exploitation, commercialization and direction of the project. Currently there is no agreement with any utility company or a specific customer. The deposit has never been exploited and has been preserved in the state originally found, except for analysis‐oriented excavations. However, due to the deposit’s characteristics as well as made investments; it is currently ready to generate cash flow.
4. 4 1.2 The Concession Giacomo and Giacomo Abuelo mining concessions are both part of the Giacomo Project and have a total area of 900 hectares (2,223 acres). The map below shows how the deposit laid out.
Giacomo Concession 1.3 Location The Giacomo Deposit is located in the South of Peru, in the district of Estique in the province of Tarata, in the Tacna region. Estique is approximately 60 kilometres northeast of the City of Tacna. The concession is on the western foothills of the Barroso’s Mountain Chain at an average altitude of 4,500 MASL.
1.4 Accessibility An improved asphalt highway spans about 70% of the distance from the City of Tacna to Giacomo, while an unpaved road covers the remaining 30% of the distance. LENGTH ROAD TYPE DISTANCE Tacna – Estique Pampa Wide Asphalted road 72 km Estique Pampa – Talabaya Wide Unpaved road 15 km (aprox.) Talabaya ‐ Concession Gravel road 15 km (aprox.)
5. 5 From Tacna, Giacomo Material can be shipped worldwide: • A 56 km railhead exists between Tacna and the deepwater Arica Seaport (Chile). • Peruvian Pan‐American Highway runs directly from Tacna to Ilo and Arica’s Seaports. It is important to note that Peruvian freight originating in Tacna is not required to pass
through Chilean Customs to access the Port of Arica as the city of Tacna resides in a “free‐trade zone” with Arica set‐up by the Peruvian and Chilean governments as part of a previous border dispute settlement. 1.5 ZOFRATACNA Law 27688 published in March 2002 created ZOFRATACNA (Tacna Free and Commercial Zone), which supersede the CETICOS regime, granting similar benefits as the latter. Exportation, Transformation, Industry, Trade and Service Centres (CETICOS) are geographical areas, duly delineated, which are destined to generate economic development poles in southern and northern Peru. The activities that may be performed within those centres include: repair services, merchandise reconditioning, modification, mixing, packing, transformation, distribution, and storage, among others. Enterprises established within the ZOFRATACNA and exporting at least 92% of their production will be exempt until December 31, 2012 from income tax, VAT, excise tax, Municipal Promotion Tax, Extraordinary Solidarity Tax, custom duties, and any other tax requiring an express exemption. Arica Seaport Ilo Seaport Giacomo deposit
6. 6 2. Minerals The minerals found are Silicon Dioxide and Titanium Dioxide which are in unusual concentrations that vary in content and are approximately up to 93% SiO2 and up to 6% TiO2 in small and uniform natural particle sizes that range between 1 to 3 microns. These materials are perfect for High Tech applications like semiconductors chips, solar panels and medical applications and further that; both are essential products used worldwide in paint, plastic as well as several other products. 2.1 Giacomo’s exceptional characteristics Giacomo is a virgin site, sui generis in the mining world due to 4 unusual features that help reduce the costs of extraction and consequently the amount of investment to start up in a significant way: 1.The minerals, in their natural state, are found on the surface; thus reducing extraction cost as the collection from the soil does not require excavations or complex tunnels. 2.The concentration of useful mineral is on average of 95%, which translates into lower costs for primary purification. 3.The SiO2 and TiO2 are found as fine particles (powder instead of quartz), making micronization and milling processes, which are particularly costly, unnecessary. 4.The SiO2 and TiO2 are held together only by cohesion (mixed but not fused, each particle is independent), allowing to avoid refining costs. These features reduce operating costs and therefore increasing profits.
2.2 Mineral samples An independent preliminary geologist survey was conducted of the Giacomo Concession in 2001. Random mineral samples were taken at 29 points over the Giacomo Concession. Deposit Northeast Face M‐3 M‐5 M‐2 M‐1 Tunnel
7. 7 The preliminary Geologist report indicated that Giacomo contains two principal minerals of significant commercial value. The results were the following: SAMPLING AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Laboratory AnalysisSample Number Sample Location SiO2% TiO2% FEO3% M‐1A CZ Zone ‐ Tunnel 84.28 10.88 0.22 M‐1B CZ Zone ‐ Tunnel 53.91 35.81 0.13 M‐1C CZ Zone ‐ Tunnel 82.62 13.10 0.14 M‐1D CZ Zone ‐ Tunnel 86.07 9.67 0.20 M‐1E CZ Zone ‐ Tunnel 87.67 7.47 0.22 M‐1F CZ Zone ‐ Tunnel 83.57 11.61 0.09 M‐1G CZ Zone ‐ Tunnel 66.05 25.46 0.13 M‐1H CZ Zone ‐ Tunnel 88.06 7.90 0.19 M‐1I CZ Zone ‐ Tunnel 85.54 10.29 0.12 Deposit Southwest Face M‐7 M‐9 M‐10 M‐11 M‐12 M‐8 M‐17 M‐16 M‐15 M‐13 M‐17
8. 8 M‐1J CZ Zone ‐ Tunnel 89.58 3.14 0.20 M‐1K CZ Zone ‐ Tunnel 90.11 5.71 0.20 M‐2 CZ Zone 94.83 3.40 1.18 M‐3 CZ Zone 85.11 2.81 2.25 M‐4 CZ Zone 97.82 1.18 2.93 M‐5 CZ Zone 93.98 5.60 2.20 M‐6 CZ Zone 91.78 1.51 6.05 M‐7 CAMP Zone 62.11 1.12 6.69 M‐8 CAMP Zone 77.66 2.08 4.38 M‐9 CAMP Zone 79.53 2.67 3.08 M‐10 CAMP Zone 99.49 0.70 2.16 M‐11 CAMP Zone 98.70 2.39 0.33 M‐12 CAMP Zone 93.46 3.18 4.40 M‐13 CAMP Zone 95.03 3.58 1.81 M‐14 CAMP Zone 91.28 4.28 1.70 M‐15 CAMP Zone 89.02 3.85 1.98 M‐16 CAMP Zone 96.76 4.07 0.84 M‐17 CAMP Zone 90.40 3.28 0.95 M‐18 CAMP Zone 87.20 2.73 0.88 M‐19 CAMP Zone 80.64 2.59 0.82 Mean (Avg.) 86.63 6.63 1.60 SOURCE: Preliminary Geologic Study and Reserve Computation for Resources and Potentials in the Mining Leases Giacomo and Giacomo Abuelo, January 2001 2.3 Certificate of Analysis
9. 9 2.4 Electron Micrographs Scanning The larger crystals are all TiO2, and the fine material around the crystal is mostly SiO2. The TiO2 crystals are up to 10 micrometres in size, but the SiO2 is a very fine powder.
10. 10 3. Giacomo Products TiO2 and SiO2 are both very valuable minerals and both used extensively world wide in a broad variety of consumer products. While most people think of Titanium as a strong, lightweight metal, close to 97% of TiO2 is actually used as pigment in paints, plastics and paper. Titanium metal has a number of useful physical properties and very resistant to corrosion. It is firm, has a high melting temperature and is lightweight. Its strength is similar to steel, but it is 45% lighter. Titanium alloys can be twice as strong as aluminium alloys. It is compatible with the human body and is often used in surgical instruments and medical implants. Titanium is the only element that will burn in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. SiO2 is used in the manufacture of special steels as well as cast iron, aluminium alloys, glass and refractory materials, ceramics, abrasives, water filtration, hydraulic cement component, filler in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paper, insecticides, rubber reinforcing agent ‐ especially for high adhesion to textiles, anti‐caking agent in foods, flatting agent in paints and as a thermal insulator. Fused silica is used as an ablative material in rocket engines, spacecraft; finally, silica fibres are often used in reinforced plastics. Prices of both TiO2 and SiO2 historically average around $1 per pound, with more variation being experienced with SiO2, due to its many forms and greater number of applications in end products. • Microcrystalline Silica for Paints With only a minimal amount of Wet Separation Processing, Giacomo SiO2 can be marketed as a Pigment Extender for Exterior Grade Paints for around $500 per tonne. Paint makers typically use about 1 pound (0.45 kg) of Microcrystalline Silica in each can of exterior paint. Further more, companies who sell Microcrystalline Silica must engage in a costly and low yield milling and grinding phase to obtain particle sizes of around 5 microns (e.g. 5 millionths of a meter) whereas, Giacomo material exhibits this small particle size in its natural state. This leads us to believe that a position of Cost Leader for this market is completely attainable. • High Purity Silica
Due to its inherent small particle size and purity, Giacomo SiO2 may be suitable as a Feedstock for High Tech Optics that can sell for as high as $5,000 per tonne. While this is a smaller market from a usage perspective, it is very attractive since Giacomo SiO2 can be made suitable for this through the use of high purity rinsing. • Specialty Silica Chemicals A great deal of SiO2 is used to make “Amorphous Silica” but this SiO2 must first undergo some chemical processing to create compounds called “precursors”. These precursor compounds can be made from Giacomo’s SiO2 with an increased level of processing, and may allow entering into the Amorphous Silica market in a short term, intermediate fashion. These materials command prices from $2,000 to $5,000 per tonne. • Titanium Dioxide Pigments More research needs to be made on this topic to confirm that a low‐cost, efficient Advanced Separation technique can be perfected to remove the TiO2 from the SiO2, and then the Titanium Dioxide may be salable as a pigment and/or opacifier. Titanium Dioxide pigment is worth around $2,000 per tonne.
11. 11 3.1. Prospective Giacomo Mineral Streams and Respective Market Categories
12. 12 4.Giacomo in Figures The commercial value of the SiO2 and TiO2 is around $300 to $500 per metric tons as raw material; the refined product can be worth 4 to 5 times that amount. Assuming a conservative volume of 20 million metric tons, Giacomo could show a potential value of about 10 BB. While reserves are still being established, there is evidence to say that the reservoir contains at least 100 million metric tons. The ample deposit reserves can be used for different purposes either by selling crude, refined or processed in many ways since the Silicon and Titanium are used as feedstock for a vast variety of industries. As for pre‐operative investment, the initial figure advised is of $ 5,000,000 to begin a daily extraction between 100 and 300 tons ore. These would be invested mainly to improve the 15 km of gravel road from Talabaya to the Concession, since it is an emergency road. Additional investment of $ 15,000,000 would be needed to build a complementary road in order to increase the capacity of extraction numerous times. Currently, Giacomo has license to extract 365.000 tons per year within a legal framework as it is defined as a Small Producer Miner. If necessary, a request for the increase of this amount can be made, even for an indefinite quantity. Studies of processing and refining for minerals are at this moment pending. Nevertheless, the first steps have already been made and these indicate that SiO2 and TiO2 are not bonded together and that it is possible to use a simple cyclonic technique to extract significant quantities of very pure SiO2. 5. Investments and field advancements The owner and his family have funded the project; so far the total investment amount is nearly $ 10,000,000. The main advancements is the project are the following: a.A specific Customs Clearance Number 2508.40.00.00 for the Minerals was created in 1998. It is important to highlight that the material is registered as a unique product, which does not have a specific name in Peru as it has no precedents in the country. b. Resources were invested and boosted at Central as well as Regional governments to build the National Highway Tacna‐Tarata, partly used at this moment, to access the site. In the same way, the culmination of negotiations was boosted so that the free Peruvian Port operations in Arica (Chile) and the railway linking the cities of Arica and Tacna came into force. c. An emergency road of 15 km (approx) of length has been built to reach the deposit in off‐road vehicles. d.In 2003, the Peruvian Department of Transport and Communications approved a project in order to develop an exclusive road for de Deposit. e.An application for electricity supply has been approved; this will support initial operations of the reservoir. f.An initial environmental impact study was presented to the Department of Energy and Mining; nevertheless it was decided to end this process in order to apply at DIA (Environmental Impact Declaration) to recourse more benefits. g.The owner possess land, with more than three (3) hectares located on the southern side of the city of Tacna near the rail line Tacna‐Arica, that comes directly to the Peruvian port in the Chilean territory. This land can serve as a future deposit. h.The deposit has undergone excavation, the same as geological and laboratory tests that prove the claim described in the initial PDF document and this presentation.
13. 13 6. Peru: General Information1 6.1 Surface area With an area of 1,285,215 square km (496,222 sq mi), Peru is the third‐largest country in South America after Brazil and Argentina, ranking amongst the world’s 20 largest nations. It holds sway over the sea up to 200 miles from the Peruvian coast and has territorial rights to an area of 60 million hectares in the Antarctic. Lima is the capital of Peru. Peru is divided into three major regions; its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes Mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. 6.2 Mineral and energy resources Peru is the 1st producer of gold, silver, zinc, tin, and lead in Latin America and 2 nd producer of copper and molybdenum. Almost all the large transnational mining companies operate in the country. Several companies, belonging to different economical groups, provide electrical supply. The largest is Edegel (Endesa), followed by Electroperú (state‐owned company). The main variety of electrical generation in Peru is hydroelectric, although natural gas is being used in an increasing manner in recent years. This is because since 2004, natural gas from Camisea is available in Lima. 6.3 Political and legal system Peru is a democratic republic divided into Legislative, Executive and Judicial powers. The president and members of Congress are elected every five years by universal suffrage. The current constitutional president of Peru is Alan Garcia Perez (2006‐2011). Peru offers a favourable legal framework for foreign investment • Non‐discriminatory treatment. • Unrestrictive access to most economic sectors. • No performance requirements. • Free transfer of capital. • Free competition. • Guarantee for private property. • Freedom to purchase stocks from locals. • Freedom to access internal and external credit. • Freedom to pay royalties. • Network of investment agreements and member of ICSID and MIGA. 1 Source: Price Waterhouse Cooper
14. 14 7. Conclusion The Giacomo Project represents an excellent “ground‐floor” investment opportunity that is unique in the world of Industrial Minerals as it entails two minerals of significant value. At Giacomo, TiO2 and SiO2 exist together in a natural state, one that is very desirable for inclusion into consumer products. In some instances, these minerals are appropriate for inclusion into intermediate chemicals that are used to make consumer products. In other instances, these minerals are suitable for direct inclusion into consumer end products with a minimal amount of processing relative to that required by competitors to achieve a level of purity and particle size on par with that found naturally at Giacomo. In these cases, Giacomo material may be able to enter the market as a Price Leader, which should enhance early Cash Flow as the company goes forth.
GIACOMO DEPOSIT (Silica-Titanium)
Contact the owner:
Carlos Casaretto Forni
Tel: 54 – 261 – 425 2699